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(EPHI), E. P. H. I. 2016. National micronutrient survey report. 
Resource type: Miscellaneous
BibTeX citation key: EPHI2016
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Categories: General
Creators: (EPHI)
Abstract
Health and vitality of human beings depends on diets with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals. The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies are most severe for children, pregnant women and the developing fetus. Approximately 30% of the world's population is unable to use their full mental and physical potential as a result of micronutrient malnutrition. Micronutrient deficiencies are significant public health problems across populations in Ethiopia. Most common micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopia include vitamin A, iodine, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, vitamin A and B 12 deficiency, foliate deficiency, zinc deficiency, iodine deficiency and adequacy of iodized salt in Ethiopia. A large population-based cross sectional survey was conducted between March and July 2015 with a representative samples drawn from nine regions and two city administrations in Ethiopia. Data was collected from eligible households (HHs) using a structured, pre-tested and modular questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and collection of blood and stool samples. Ninety five percent of eligible HHs participated in this study. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of inflammation measured by CRP and AGP among under-five children, school children and non- pregnant women of reproductive age was 44 %, 31.6 % and 27.3% respectively. The prevalence of anemia adjusted for altitude among preschool children, school age and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was 34.4, 25.6 and 17.7 %, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies were more prominent among rural residents. The prevalence of Iron deficiency among preschool children, school age children and women of reproductive age, as measured by ferritin and adjusted for inflammation, was 17.8, 9.1 and 10.0% respectively. On the other hand, national prevalence of Iron deficiency among preschool age children, school age children and women of reproductive age, as measured by STFR, was estimated 29.6%, 19.5% and 16.4% respectively. Therefore, the deficiency of tissue iron and depleted body iron store was more prevalent among preschool children than other target groups. The prevalence of subclinical vitamin A deficiency was 14%, 10.9% and 3.4% in the preschool age children, school age children and women of reproductive age respectively. The national vitamin A supplementation coverage in the preschool age children was 63%. The national prevalence of zinc deficiency was 35% in the preschool age children, 36% in school age children and 34% in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of Vitamin B12, serum folate and RBC folate among women of reproductive age was 15.1%, 17.3% and 32% respectively. The prevalence of iodine deficiency among school age children, with mean urinary iodine concentration below the cut-off, was 48%. Among women of reproductive age, the prevalence of iodine deficiency was 52%. National salt coverage was 85% but only about 26% of the households were getting adequately iodized salt. The survey finding showed that Zinc, Vitamin A and Iodine are public health problem according to WHO classification. Since the magnitude of the deficiencies of these micro-nutrients are widely varied among different target groups, targeted intervention required to address the deficiency in needs. In addition, Food fortification and supplementation of micronutrient, health promotion and disease prevention programs should be strengthen to overcome high prevalence of micronutrient deficiency and inflammation in Ethiopia.In addition their availability should be ensured though improving production, processing, preservation, pricing and marketing of such foods. Moreover, industrialized scale salt processing and iodization should be aggressively promoted along with strong enforcement, monitoring and evaluation to improve Universal SaltIodization program (USI).