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Alemu, Y. M., Andargie, G., & Gebeye, E. (2016). High incidence of tuberculosis in the absence of isoniazid and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy in children living with hiv in northern ethiopia: A retrospective follow-up study. PLoS ONE, 11(4). 
Resource type: Journal Article
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152941
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 19326203
BibTeX citation key: Alemu2016
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Categories: General
Creators: Alemu, Andargie, Gebeye
Collection: PLoS ONE
Objective To identify the incidence of and predictors for tuberculosis in children living with HIV in Northern Ethiopia. Design Observational, retrospective follow-up study. Methods A total of 645 HIV-infected children were observed between September 2009 and September 2014. Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors for developing TB. Results The incidence rate of tuberculosis was 4.2 per 100 child-years. Incidence of tuberculosis was higher for subjects who were not on cotrimoxazole preventive therapy, were not on isoniazid preventive therapy, had delayed motor development, had a CD4 cell count below the threshold, had hemoglobin level less than 10 mg/dl and were assessed as World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage III or IV. Conclusion Incidence of TB in children living with HIV was high. This study reaffirmed that isoniazid preventive therapy is one of the best strategy to reduce incidence of TB in children living with HIV. All children living with HIV should be screened for TB but for children with delayed motor development, advanced WHO clinical stage, anemia or immune suppression, intensified screening is highly recommended.