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Vos, M. D., Derendinger, B., Dolby, T., Simpson, J., Helden, P. D. V., & Rice, J. E., et al. (2018). Diagnostic accuracy and utility of fluorotype mtbdr, a new molecular assay for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 56(9). 
Resource type: Journal Article
DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00531-18
ID no. (ISBN etc.): 1098660X
BibTeX citation key: Vos2018
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Categories: General
Keywords: Diagnostics, Drug resistance, FluoroType MTBDR, Isoniazid, Molecular, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rifampin, Tuberculosis
Creators: Derendinger, Dolby, Helden, Rice, Simpson, Theron, Vos, Wangh, Warren
Collection: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Most cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) are never diagnosed (328,300 of the 490,000 cases in 2016 were missed). The Xpert MTB/RIF assay detects resistance only to rifampin, despite 20% of rifampin-resistant cases being susceptible to isoniazid (a critical first-line drug). Consequently, many countries require further testing with the GenoType MTBDRplus assay. However, MTBDRplus is not recommended for use on smear-negative specimens, and thus, many specimens require culture-based drug susceptibility testing. Furthermore, MTBDRplus requires specialized expertise, lengthy hands-on time, and significant laboratory infrastructure and interpretation is not automated. To address these gaps, we evaluated the accuracy of the FluoroType MTBDR (FluoroType) assay. Sputa from 244 smear-positive and 204 smear-negative patients with presumptive TB (Xpert MTB positive, n 343) were tested. Culture and MTBDRplus on isolates served as reference standards (for active TB and MDR-TB, respectively). Sanger sequencing and MTBDRplus, both of which were performed on sputa, were used to resolve discrepancies. The sensitivity of FluoroType for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex was 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 95 to 99%) and 92% (95% CI, 84 to 96%) for smear-positive and smear-negative specimens, respectively (232/237 versus 90/98 specimens; P 0.009). The sensitivity and specificity for smear-negative specimens were 100% and 97%, respectively, for rifampin resistance; 100% and 98%, respectively, for isoniazid resistance; and 100% and 100%, respectively, for MDR-TB. FluoroType identified 98%, 97%, and 97% of the rpoB, katG, and inhA promoter mutations, respectively. FluoroType has excellent sensitivity with sputa equivalent to that of MTBDRplus with the isolates and can provide rapid drug susceptibility testing for rifampin and isoniazid. In addition, the capacity of FluoroType to simultaneously identify virtually all mutations in the rpoB, katG, and inhA promoter may be useful for individualized treatment regimens.